The components of the Nervous System

Introduction to the Nerve System

The human body has a wire-like network which is called the Nervous system. The Nervous system has broadly 2 components. The basic component is the Central Nervous System.

The Central Nervous System is composed of nearly 100 billion neurons. Neurons are the core units of each nerve. The brain forms the most important core of the Central Nervous System. Most of the brain contains these core unit neurons and then the tails of these core units continue further into the body.

Component of a Nerve

The core unit, Neuron has hundreds of hair-like structures. These hair-like structures can be from a few hundred to nearly 200,000 structures. These hair-like structures are called as Dendrites. The dendrites connect to other dendrites to form a connection. The connection in between dendrites is called as a Synapse. The flow of current through these synapses and neurons is always in one direction. The small dendrites only receive incoming signals. The outgoing signals will go only through 1 particular thick tube-like structure. This tube-like structure is called as an Axon. The Axon can branch multiple times. For other nerves, the Axon may not branch

at all.

The nerves have a sensory part and a motor part.

Sensory Part of Nerve System

The sensory part of a nerve gets its signals from the sensory inputs. The sensory inputs come majorly 5 senses. These 5 senses are sight, smell, touch, sound, and taste. There are other senses as well. These senses are called the Somatic portion of the sensory part of the Nerve System. It als

o comprises the Peripheral Nervous System. The signal is passed on to the spinal cord, the reticular substance of Medulla Pons, Mesencephalon of the brain, Cerebellum, Thalamus, and the Cerebral Cortex.

Motor part of Nervous system

After the signal is passed on to the above-mentioned areas, the signals are processed and then passed back to the body. The effect of the signals sent by the motor part of nerve system results in either contraction of the muscles or secretion by the glands of the body.

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